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    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
    Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers
    journal homepage:
    A theranostic approach to breast cancer by a quantum dots- and magnetic nanoparticles-conjugated peptide
    Chih-Hsiang Chang a, I-Chi Tsai a, Chung-Jen Chiang b,∗, Yun-Peng Chao a,c,d,∗∗ a Department of Chemical Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Road, Taichung 40724, Taiwan b Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
    c Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40447, Taiwan d Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
    Article history:
    Quantum dots
    Magnetic nanoparticles
    Theranostic peptide
    Breast cancer 
    The heterogeneous nature of cancers renders the e cacy of the therapeutic treatment diversified. To address this issue, a theranostic approach was proposed by development of a hybrid peptide for simul-taneous diagnosis and therapy of cancer cells. Peptide A was composed of the biotinylation site (BS), the HER2/neu-binding motif, and the dockerin domain (Doc). Peptide B was designed with BS and the cohesin domain (Coh). Individually expressed in Escherichia coli, peptide A and peptide B were isolated and then functionalized by conjugation with quantum dots (QDs)-streptavidin and magnetic nanoparti-cles (MNPs)-streptavidin, respectively. A hybrid peptide was assembled by coupling of the QDs-peptide with the MNPs-conjugated peptide via the Doc-Coh interaction. By administration of the hybrid peptide, HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells were detected and destroyed as a result of the QDs-emitted fluo-rescence and the MNPs-mediated hyperthermia.
    © 2019 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    1. Introduction
    Nanotechnology has reshaped the pharmaceutical industries with the brilliant concept of an innovative and smart medicine known as targeted therapy [1]. This technique essentially exploits nanoparticles (NPs) which are loaded with a chemical cargo and functionalized by conjugation with a biomarker-binding ligand. Consequently, the payload carried by NPs is specifically delivered to malignant tissues [2]. The conventional treatment of cancers in-volving chemotherapy and radiation imparts many adverse effects on patients. The NPs-based therapy appears to have an advantage of drastically reducing the side effects and improving the drug ef-ficacy at a low dose [3]. Nevertheless, one specific treatment usu-ally displays a various degree of therapeutic e cacy towards pa-tients because of the heterogeneous nature of cancers. This issue can be addressed by theranostics which has currently emerged a novel technique implementing both diagnosis and therapy [4]. This technique enables the real-time monitoring of the therapeutic re-